|1. Chemical composition of biological systems.
||Macrobiogenic, microbiogenic and trace elments.
The molecular logic of life.
Structure of biological macromolecules.
|2. Structural biochemistry of proteins.
||Aminoacids: structure and properties.
Peptide bond features.
Three-dimensional structure of proteins: protein folding.
|3. Principles of biocatalysis and regulation of enzyme activity.
||Enzymes as biological catalysts.
Enzyme structure and functional principles.
How enzymes work.
Substrate specificity: the active site.
Classification of enzymes and nomenclature.
Enzyme kinetics: the Michaelis-Menten equation and calculation of kinetic parameters.
|4. Structural biochemistry of carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids. Biological relevance.
||Structural units: structure and chemical properties.
Macromolecular structure of carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
|5. Cell membrane and extracellular matrix.
||Structure, composition and functions.
|6. Organelles and intracellular traffic.
||Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.
Cell digestion: peroxisomes and lysosomes.
Mitochondria: structure and function.
|7. Cytoskeleton and cell movement.
||Actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments.
|8. Nucleus, cell cycle, apoptosis.
Chromatin and chromosomes: structure and dynamics.
Cell cycle regulation.
Cell death: apoptosis and necrosis.
|Practice 1. Assay of enzyme activity.
||Obtention of an active fraction of beta-D-galactosidase.
Measurement of beta-D-galactosidase activity.
|Practice 2. Quantification of total protein content in biological samples.
||Seroalbumin standard calibration curve by the Lowry method.
Determination of protein concentration in beta-D-galactosidase extract.
|Practice 3. Kinetic characterization of enzyme activity.
||Substrate saturation curve for beta-D-galactosidase.
Determining Km and Vmax.
|Practice 4. Thermal stability and optimum pH.
||Determining the optimum pH of beta-D-galactosidase activity.
Thermal inactivation of beta-D-galactosidase.
|Practice 5. Cell types and extracellular matrix.
||Observation of cell types and extracellular matrices at light microscopy.
|Practice 6. Cell organelles I.
||Observation of cell organelles at light microscopy.
|Practice 7. Cell organelles II.
||Identification of cell organelles in electron microscopy images.
|Practice 8. Cell cycle.
||Observation and quantification of mitotic phases in animal tissues.