Educational guide 2015_16
Escola de Enxeñaría Industrial
Grao en Enxeñaría Mecánica
  Graphic Engineering
Topic Sub-topic
1. Introduction to graphics in Engineering. 1.1. Types of graphics in Engineering and their fields of application. Graphics for design, visualization and communication. The graphical language.
1.2. Graphic systems. Types and structure of graphics files. Information management. Hierarchies. Layers.
1.3. Models. Geometrical models.
2. Representation of standard parts and mechanical components. 2.1. Preferred numbers/values. Standard part names.
2.2. Standard representation, annotation and part names for threaded elements, springs, bearings and its accessories, pulleys. Graphics information in gear wheel drawings. Teeth profile curves.
2.3. Other alternatives for the transmission of movement.
2.4. Mechanical couplings.
2.5. Symbolic representation of mechanisms.
2.6. Criteria for selecting and using standard components.
3. Management of variability; functional consequences of tolerancing. Analysis and synthesis of tolerances. 3.1. Variability associated to engineering problems.
3.2. Macro- and micro-geometrical tolerances.
3.3. Dimensional tolerances and fits and their specifications.
3.4. Geometrical tolerances and their specifications.
3.5. References and reference systems.
3.6. Surface roughness tolerances and their specifications.
3.7. Statistical tolerancing. Cost functions of tolerancing.
3.8. Tolerance analysis and tolerance synthesis.
3.9. Combination of tolerances; effects of tolerance cumulation on the operational and assembly conditions of mechanisms.
4. Conception and representation of elementary mechanical forms. Function-oriented, manufacturing-oriented and control-oriented dimensioning. 4.1. Constructive forms for the design of casted, forged, shaped and deep-drawn parts.
4.2. Elementary mechanical functions.
4.3. Analysis of operation conditions in mechanisms.
4.4. Functional dimensioning. Dimension chains.
4.5. Manufacturing-process-oriented dimensioning.
4.6. Compliance-control-oriented dimensioning.
5. Diagrams, nomograms and empirical equations. 5.1. Graphical constructions used in Engineering.
5.2. Scales for graphical constructions.
5.3. Diagrams and nomograms. Volumetric graphs.
5.4. Graphical representation of empirical equations.
5.5. Data analysis functions.
6. Fundamentals of computer graphics. 6.1. Basic geometric transformations.
6.2. Graphing of lines: basic algorythms.
6.3. Approximative and interpolative curves: types and applications.
6.4. Geometric modeling. Information structure in 2D and 3D CAD files. Entities and models for solids / surfaces / wireframes / points.
6.5. Graphics libraries.
6.6. Product-oriented CAD systems for mechanical design.
7. Geometrical specification of products. 7.1. The Geometrical Specification concept according to ISO.
7.2. Standards-chains.
7.3. GPS Fundamental and Global standards.
7.4. GPS General Standard Matrices.
7.5. GPS Complementary Standards Matrices.
7.6. Specification operations.
7.7. Interpretation of geometrical specifications based on the operations used to build them.
8. Representation of industrial buildings and installations. 8.1. Symbolic representation of structures.
8.2. Detail drawings of metallic structures.
8.3. Representation and annotation of welded joints.
8.4. Drawings for metalworking.
8.5. Symbols and schematics for hydraulic and pneumatic circuits.
8.6. Symbols and schematics for piping works.
9. CAD/CAE/CAM systems. Systems for data acquisition of real shapes. Rapid prototyping. 9.1. CAx systems.
9.2. CAD/CAM tools.
9.3. CAE tools in the design engineering context.
9.4. Virtual reality: features and devices. Applications in the Engineering field.
9.5. Digitization of shapes. Reverse engineering projects.
9.6. Rapid prototyping systems.
9.7. Information exchange formats.
10. Introduction to Industrial Design. 10.1. Design. Types. Industrial Design: product, communication and corporative image.
10.2. Design methodologies.
10.3. Stages in the design process.
10.4. Creativity in the design process.
10.5. Assessment of design alternatives.
10.6. DfX techniques.
1. Sketching of a mechanical assembly. The sketching of a mechanical assembly by every student will be proposed. It will include power transmission elements and a high number of standard components. The preliminary process, involving the study, information gathering and analysis, will be performed by groups of three/four students.
2. Modelling of the previous assembly. Once the previous practical work has been corrected and given back to the students, the modelling of parts and its assembly will be performed, using the CAD software that is available at the laboratory. Every student will work on his own, but groups will be made for idea-sharing and collaborative learning.
3. Making of 2D drawings. Details and assembly drawings will be made from the previous models of the assembly, using the CAD software available. The drawings will contain the bill of materials and all necessary specifications -dimensions, macro- and micro-geometrical tolerances, special indications- needed to guarantee optimal operation of the mechanism to which each part belongs.
4. Representations for metalworking. Solid modelling and plane developments will be performed on a metalworking element, including all the necessary dimensional specifications, using the CAD software available.
5. Making of a report for functionality and exchangeability analysis. A critical analysis will be performed on the design of exercises 1 to 4, containing an estimation of the expected operational conditions, based on the applied tolerances and their combined effect. A study showing how the tolerance costs could be reduced based on the combined effect of all the intervening ones will also be carried out. CAE analysis will be performed on a relevant part of the design. All pieces from the report will documented, applying as much graphical information from the course work as possible in order to achieve a better understanding of the document.
6. Representation of an industrial facility. Schematics of piping works and other installations. A small building of the 'industrial unit' kind, hosting a workshop or small mechanical industry, will be represented using the CAD software available, including drawings with all the necessary dimensions and the corresponding construction details of the metallic structure. The symbolic representation of the various relevant installations in the unit: energy, fluids, etc. will be also carried out.
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