|1. Atomic theory and chemical bonding
||1.1 Atomic theory:
Particles of the atom: Electron, proton et neutron. Characteristics of the atom: Atomic number and Atomic mass. Isotopes. Stability of the nucleus: Radioactivity (natural and artificial). Evolution of the atomic theory.
1.2. Chemical bonding:
Definition. Intramolecular bonding: Covalent bonding and ionic bonding. Polyatomic molecules: hybridization and delocalization of electrons. Intermolecular bonding: Types of intermolecular forces.
|2. States of aggregation: Solids, gases, pure liquids and solutions
||2.1. Solid state:
Introduction. Classification of solids: amorphous solids, molecular crystals and liquid crystals, Covalent crystals and ionic crystals. Structure and stabilization energy of crystals.
2.2. Gaseous state:
Characteristics of the gas phase. Ideal gases: Equation of state. Real gases: Equation of state. Properties of gases.
2.3. Liquid state:
Characteristics of the liquid phase: physical properties (density, surface tension, viscosity). Changes of state. Phase diagram. Solutions: colligative properties
||3.1. Heat of reaction:
Definition of Enthalpy and Internal Energy. Enthalpy of reaction. Temperature Dependence of Enthalpy Changes. Enthalpy of formation. Determination of the reaction enthalpy: direct method. State Function and Hess's Law.
3.2. Entropy: Definition. Calculus.
3.3. Free energy: Definition. Calculus. The Criterion of Evolution.
|4.Chemical equilibrium: in gas phase, acid-base-base, redox, solubility
||(4.1. Chemical equilibrium:
Concept of Equilibrium. Equilibrium Constant. Types of equilibrium. The Le Chatelier Principe.
4.2. Acid-base Equilibrium:
Definition of acid and base. Auto-ionization of water. Ionic Product. Concept of pH and pOH. Strength of acids and bases: Polyprotic acids. Amphoters. pH calculation. Acid-base titration. Buffer solutions.
4.3. Redox equilibrium:
Concept of oxidation, reduction, oxidising agent, reducing agent. Balance of redox reactions in acid and alkaline media. Redox titration. Electrochemical cells: basic concepts and redox potential. Thermodynamics of electrochemical reactions: Gibbs Energy and cell Potential. Nernst Equation. Faraday’s Laws.
4.4 Solubility equilibrium:
Soluble salts: Hydrolysis. Sparingly soluble salts: solubility and solubility product. Factors affecting solubility. Fractional Precipitation. Complex Salts: Definition, properties, dissociation and importance.
|5. Chemical kinetics
||5.1. Basic Concepts:
Reaction Rate. Reaction Order. Kinetic Constant. Rate Equation.
5.2. Determination of the Rate Equation:
Initial rate method. Integrated Rate Laws.
5.3. Factors affecting the Reaction Rate.
|6. Basic principles of Organic Chemistry
||6.1. Fundamentals of Organic formulation and functional groups:
6.1.1. ºStructure of the organic compounds: Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Aromatic Hydrocarbons.
6.1.2. Alcohols and phenols.
6.1.4. Aldehydes and ketones.
6.1.6. Carboxylic acids and derivatives.
6.1.7. Amines and nitro-compounds.
|7. Basic principles of Inorganic Chemistry.
||7.1. Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals:
Abundance of metals. Nature of the metallic bond, properties. Theory of the Conduction Band: conducting materials, semiconductors and superconductors. Metallurgical processes: iron and steel.
7.2. Non-metallic elements and their compounds:
General properties. Hydrogen. Carbon. Nitrogen and phosphorous. Oxygen and sulphur. Halogens.
|8. Applied Electrochemistry
||8.1. Applications of the Nernst equation: Determination of pH, Equilibrium constant, solubility product.
8.2. Electrochemical cells: types of cells. Concentration Cells. Electric Conductivity in electrolytes. Electrolysis Cells.
8.3. Industrial Processes of electrolysis: electrodeposition (electroplating), electrometallurgy, electrolysis chlorine–caustic soda. Fuel cells.
|9. Corrosion and treatment of Surfaces
||9.1. Basic principles of Corrosion: the corrosión cell.
9.2. Corrosion of metals.
9.3. Corrosion rate.
9.4. Types of Corrosion.
9.5. Protection against Corrosion:
Design considerations for Corrosion protection. Cathodic protection: sacrificial anodes and impressed current. Organic Coatings. Metallic coatings.
|10. Electrochemical sensors
10.2. Typology and function.
10.3. Conductivity Sensors.
10.4. Potentiometric Sensors.
10.5. Ion Selective electrodes. pH sensors.
10.6. Sensors for gases in solution.
10.7. Enzyme-based sensors: Biosensors.
10.8. Amperometric and voltammetric sensors.
10.9. Applications of sensors: medicine, industry, environment.
|11. Petroleum and derivatives. Petrochemistry
||11.1. Physicochemical characteristics of petroleum (oil).
11.2. Physicochemical characteristics of natural gas.
11.3. Conditioning and uses of natural gas.
11.4. Fractioning of oil.
11.5. Cracking of hydrocarbons. Reforming, isomerisation, oligomerisation, alkylation and esterification of hydrocarbons.
11.6. Petrochemical processes of BTX; olefins and derivatives; methanol and derivatives.
11.7. Treatment of sulphurous compounds and refining units.
|12. Carbon: Carbochemistry
||(12.1. Formation of carbon.
12.2. Types of carbons and their constitution.
12.3. Technological uses of carbon.
12.4. Pyrogenation of carbon.
12.5. Hyidrogenation of carbon.
12.6. Direct liquefaction of carbon. Gasification.